Andrew’s Pea Breeding Tips [2017]

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As homage to my older blog post about pea breeding information, which is an archived copy of my currently defunct website, i wanted to share a few tips and a pea breeding technique that i invented that helps increase the rate of pea crossbreeding success and produces a higher seed per pod ratio than standard “paintbrush” or “scalpel” crossbreeding techniques.

pea1b

Standard Pea Crossbreeding technique is one that i call the “paintbrush method”. It works, i guess. But i think I’ve found a better way. In the paintbrush or scalpel crossbreeding method you basically find the two pea flowers you want to use. First you select a closed immature flower as the female parent that you then use with a small pair of scissors (lefthand curved embroidery scissors work well for this) to remove all the pollen anthers before they have a chance to release mature pollen and self pollinate. Second, you then take an open mature pea flower to use as the male flower and use a paintbrush or scalpel to collect pollen and transfer it to the receptive style/stigma.

lefty scissor curved close

Andrew’s Pea Crossing Method:

My method is a bit odd looking at first, but in my experience it works MUCH better. On average from what i can tell you usually get about 1-2 peas per pod with the “paintbrush method”. No more than 4. With my method i’d say you get on average of¬†4-5 peas per pod, with the potential of a whole pod 6-8 peas depending on your variety. So i’d say I’ve at least doubled the success rate, maybe even tripled it.

tweezer

First, i’d say get rid of that embroidery scissor. While it works, i find that a combination of pulling off the outer petals with your hands and using a small flat beveled or angled pair of tweezers works fantastically well. Get yourself a pair of tweezers like these. They may be referred to as “eyebrow tweezers”.

F1.Cross_zpsdbvd4pce

Second, find yourself an immature pea flower to use as the female parent. Rip off all the outer petals and remove the immature anthers before it can self-pollinate. Third, find yourself an open mature flower for the male parent. Just cut or rip the whole flower off of the plant, we will need the whole thing. Fourth, use your tweezers to make a small opening in the bottom of the keel petal. Followed by slipping the flower used as the male over the stigma and style of the flower used as the female parent, making sure that the stigma/style gets covered in pollen at the top of the keel petal shown in the picture above. There is a small reservoir of pollen up there that makes for plenty of pollen to go around. Finally, leave this flower covering on there as long as possible. Sometimes they fall off, it helps to try pollinating the flower again during the next few days if this happens.

Why is this technique more successful?

Well, for me i think it’s a combination of things. First and most importantly it serves as a hood or covering for the flower to keep pollen from drying out or being washed away in the rain. In my climate the air can be quite dry and the high altitude with intense sunlight tends to wick away moisture quite easily. These tiny pea styles are quite delicate and seem to dry out so quickly that they can dry out before pollen has been able to set seed. Second, it provides a LOT of pollen over that whole style. I could be wrong, but i suspect that each of the receptive seed ovules mature at different times. If this is true, then it requires enough good pollen to be available over several days for each seed to be pollinated and grow. And finally, it just seems to mimic everything about how a pea flower would naturally self pollinate. Sometimes it’s best to just imitate nature as sometimes nature knows best.

How do you know what age of pea flower to use?

Good question. Here is a good illustration that should help. You need to catch a pea flower used as the female parent very very early actually. The pea flower second from the left is just about perfect because it is big enough to use but young enough it should not have released pollen and selfed yet. The open flower on the far right is about right for using as a pollen donor. If the pollen is too old or not enough, select a similar one that is slightly younger or try one that looks like the third one from the left.

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And that’s it. If you have any thoughts, please leave a comment. I hope you find it interesting and helpful. Happy Tinkering! ūüôā

http://daughterofthesoil.blogspot.com/2007/05/how-to-breed-your-own-garden-peas.html

8. Pea Breeding by Earl T. Gritton

http://daughterofthesoil.blogspot.com/2006/06/how-to-hybridise-garden-peas.html

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In [2017] I bred A New Pea Variety With Purple Seeds!

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these are new F2 seeds recovered from some pea crosses i did i think in spring/summer of 2015. So two years ago. This one is the descendant of a cross done between a rare, and nearly extinct variety of pea that has a dominant gene for having a purple testa color over the seed coat. The parent variety called ‘Purple Passion’ has small round dark purple seeds and grows on thin wispy and pathetically weak vines. Hardly seems domesticated at all. The other parent of the cross was a “super dwarf”, or Extra Dwarf as some literature calls it, of a short (1-2″ tall) but robust pea with thick stems, big leaves, large seeds, and a charming personality. For a plant that is. Not that plants have personalities, but whatever. The result in the F2 generation is this. A large good sized seed with the characteristic dark purple testa seed coat color. Pretty awesome. I’m excited to furthur grow this line out and see what it becomes. This is different from the Brick-red seeded peas known as ‘Biskopens’ or ‘Sweedish Red’, which are a brick-red color rather than dark purple / violet and which is a recessive trait rather than a dominant one. Biskopens is a neat variety in it’s own right, and i have recovered some interesting F2 recombinant offspring from some crosses of that variety as well.

Not sure what i should name it yet. Depends on what it turns into really. Assuming i was able to recover the “super dwarf” genetics at some point i might name that substrain something like ‘Purple Midget’ or something like that. haha

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Parent Variety: ‘Purple Passion’
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F1 seeds of cross between ‘Purple Passion’ Pea and ‘Mighty Midget’ Pea

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Orange, Yellow, and Red-podded peas.. oh my!

Sorry for not posting anything about plant breeding lately. I’ve been rather busy this year. But i still have a few plant breeding projects (mostly from last year) that i dedicated garden space this year ¬†for. These include my Colorado bred / adapted Watermelon Landrace, which did quite well last year (even a racoon thought so and ate one that was overripe). My Wild Pueblo squash from Utah. An attempt at a sweet potato growing / breeding project. A mass tomato growout / trial. Some perennial teosinte-maize hybrids. And my various pea variety growouts which includes: Salmon-flowered pea and crosses, mummy-white and crosses, mummy-pea, Biskopens and hoped crosses, Joseph’s red-podded peas, Joseph’s yellow podded peas, Orange-pod, Virescens Mutante, Sugar Magnolia, Sugaree, Green Beauty, Purple Passion, Dwarf Grey Sugar, Spring Rose, Canoe, Mighty Midget. I also finally made one successful cross this year between Mighty Midget and Purple Passion. That should eventually give me a super dwarf with purple seeds and also improve purple passion to have stronger stems as it’s normally a very spindly plant.

This winter, i think in February i ¬†experimented with making a small cold-frame and using it to plant some of my peas super early. You can see it here where i watered it with snow and then a few weeks later the pea seedlings emerging but it still being rather cold outside. It worked great though. This particular cold frame is more suited for super dwarf or extra dwarf peas or lettuce or something. If i had a greenhouse i’d totally experiment more with growing vegetables in the winter.

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A nice segregating yellow pod from the red-podded breeding line. Very nice.

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A nice yellow and red mottled pea pod. The contrast is what makes this one really stand out! A line to keep an eye on for sure.

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A remnant from Dan Quickert’s purple snow pea project. This is one of the few that didn’t die off a few years back, so this one must have had much better genetics than it’s siblings. A nice example of a purple snow pea, which are still quite rare. This one is called ‘Midnight Snow’.

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And some of the orange-pod gene peas (orp) i’m growing from the Gatersleben gene bank. These have an interesting orange color on the inside of the pod. I hope to use these to make better yellows and better red podded peas in the future.

Pea Breeding Resources

Pea Breeding is actually really awesome. Especially when you can get really neat colors to recombine into new combinations. Punnet Squares to predict the genetics of pea breeding is also very helpful and fun too. This page contains a multitude of information on pea genetics.

(This page was originally hosted on my test website Biolumo.com, but since i am hosting it myself on my own computer it is not exactly a reliable place, and hence i have copied all of the relevant information here to my blog as a permanent place to find it.)

Details of Mendel’s Pea Breeding

Here is a copy of Mendel’s original paper, for those who are interested.

biologyThe Results of Mendel's crosses for seven characters in pea plants

The following pea breeding illustrations were obtained from the Eighth Edition of Biology by Neil A. Campbell. I’ve scanned the relevant illustrations about pea breeding. If you would like to view¬†the genetics section in PDF form instead, then here you go:¬†You can read the whole genetics chapter in a virtual pdf online.

crossing pea plantsF1 Hybrid Pea Plants

Pea Alleles, Locuspeas F2 generation

random combination of the gametes results in the 3:1 ration that Mendel observed in the F2 generationMendel Pea TestcrossMendel Independent Assortment

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Rebsie Fairholm's Red-Podded Pea
Rebsie Fairholm’s Red-Podded Pea

If your still interested in pea breeding, then you might be interested in Rebsie Fairholm’s breeding projects involving peas. Not only is she breeding a very neat yellow sugar snap pea called¬†Luna Trick, but she is also breeding an awesome red-podded pea as well! She not only shares photos and info about her crosses on her blog, but she has also provided 2 excellent tutorials for crossing peas with photos! Many of us amateur plant breeders are attempting and making progress on recreating Rebsie’s red-podded pea success here.

Trying to figure out the gentics for this rare red-podded pea is facinationg! Here are my attemopts to figure it all out with punnett squares below.

Parent Generation (P)
F1 generation if purple-pod parent is homozygous for the purple gene

F1 yp yp
GP GyPp
purple pea
GyPp
purple pea
GP GyPp
purple pea
GyPp
purple pea
OR
F1 generation if purple-pod parent is heterozygous for the purple gene
F1 yp yp
GP GyPp
purple pea
GyPp
purple pea
Gp Gypp
green pea
Gypp
green pea

But as it turns out, Rebsie’s results actually had mostly green pods. And upon doing some research about the genes responsible for the purple-podded trait, we actually find that there may instead be 3 genes needed for the anthocyanins to be present. One gene commonly called “A” is a master swich gene and is epistatic to the other genes coding for anthocyanins. The other two genes are also both required for the pod to have purple-pod’s. If this is correct than that means the punnit squares i completed above are no where close to being accurate. Here is the F1 hypothesis again, and this one as far as i know is correct this time. I have used the letter “A” to represent the on/off gene, along with “P” and “U” to represent the two purple-pod genes. I have left out the yellow podded gene because all offspring will be hetozygous for a base pod color of yellow/green.

Here is the corrected F1 generation hypothesis using the three genes for purple anthocyanin colors. We are ignoring the gene for green/yellow pods for the moment since all offspring in the F1 generation are heterozygous for dominant green and recessive yellow.

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That gives us a ratio of 28 Purple : 36 Green.

So I guess Rebsie was right; in the F1 generation mostly green pods appear.

Here is the F2 Generation Hypothesis using the rule of independent assortment. Now this table is not entirely correct, but represents the “average” offspring collected from the purple-podded plants in the F1 generation. I say the average because in the best case scenario you can get purple-podded plants that be homozygous for ALL of the purple genes. On the other hand, the worst case scenario is that the purple-podded plants in the F1 will be heterozygous for ALL of the purple genes. In most cases though i think that the average purple-podded plant in the F1 will have two homozygous genes and the third gene will be heterozygous. In that case you would only need to worry about two sets of genes in the F2, nameley 1 set for anthocyanin and 1 set for yellow pods underneath.
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Which in this “average” scenario results in the typical 9:3:3:1 Phenotypic Ratio.
And in this case the red-podded peas are the recombinant offspring that we are loking for.
If we take that a little furthur, that means that if you plant 50 F2 generation seeds, you should get a ratio of about 43 non-red pods : 7 red-pods.

Inheritance Of The Colors Of Pea Flowers

Mendelian Inheritance Of The Colour OF The Flower In The Culinary Pea

Pea flowers (the edible kind) come in three major colors. They can come in the “wild” form which is a Bicolour Purple, White, or Salmon Pink (pink-and-white). I first encountered this information on Rebsie’s blog, and after doing some research of my own, i found one refrence to the same imformation in a very old book from 1912 (Breeding and the Mendelian discovery by A.D. Darbishire). The purple form is dominant and is a trait mostly common in field peas. The pink form is recessive to the the purple, but is dominant to the white. The white form is recessive to all color, and is commonly associated with modern peas that have been selected for high sugar content. It’s a bit amusing the way the book talks about the purple form in relation to the other two. Apparently if you breed the pink with the white you will get purple in the F1 generation because the pink has the gene that expresses color, but the white is actually hiding the gene for purple flowers. In the book this is talked about as an ancestral trait, a throwback, and the theory of reversion.

In Darwins book, The Origin of Species, Darwin himself encounters something similar with his breeding of pigeons. Darwin bred a pure white pigeon with another white pigeon (with black tail feathers), and was very surprised because in the next generation he got a blue pigeon (which has the same coloring as the wild rock pigeon). But Darwin didn’t know about genetics, so he could only conclude that it was a ancestral throwback phenomenon. We now know that the white one with black stripes had the gene for color (black) and the pure white pidgeon was actually a blue pidgeon but did not have any active color genes. To my knowlwdge the only variety of pea known to have pink flowers is the one called ‘Salmon-flowered’.

Salmon-flowered, pink, pink-and-white pea flower Bicolour Purple pea flower white pea flower

Following in Mendel’s Footsteps

…and discovering how interesting pea breeding can actually be…

Google’s logo showing a dihybrid cross, but failing to follow the law of independent assortment (yellow pods & yellow seeds are not linked), and also failing to show that yellow seeds are dominant. But, it does show the 3:1 ratio of green:yellow pods in the F2 generation.

After noticing that Google’s logo today was in honor of Gregor Mendel’s 189th Birthday, I decided to make a post about pea breeding. On first thought pea breeding doesn’t sound all that interesting. Even to people who are interested in plant breeding in general. I myself thought that Mendel had already worked with all the interesting traits found in peas out there, but i have found that i was wrong. I’m starting to find that the traits Mendel worked with are actually very neat in person, and the ones he didn’t know about are even more interesting.

The Google logo itself is actually a visual representation of Mendel’s experiment of crossing yellow podded peas (recessive) with that of green podded peas (dominant), but it also shows his other experiment of crossing yellow seeds with green seeds. Unfortunately¬†it looks like Google’s logo is not following the law of independent assortment and is showing linkage between yellow pods and yellow seeds, which is incorrect. Yellow seeds are actually dominant, so Google fails in that regard. But, even so it illustrates the ratio of 3:1. In other words, in the F2 generation 3/4 of the offspring will be green-podded and 1/4 yellow podded.

yellow-poded constricted pea pod
yellow-podded pea also with the constricted pod gene (Golden Sweet)

The picture above shows a variety called “Golden Sweet” which remarkably has both the rare yellow-podded gene, but also the gene for constricted pods. After growing this variety for the first time here in my own garden, i can see why Mendel was so fascinated with pea traits at the time. I personally think his experiments were directly inspired by this unique variety of pea, which is suspected to have become close to extinction in Europe and the rest of the world, until it was accidentally¬†rediscovered recently in a collection of seeds from India. It certainly is a pea with some interesting genetics.

breeding peas

I’ve only just started to experiment with crossing peas this year. While it sounds like it would be hard, it’s actually fairly easy. But, it really does help to have a tiny pair of scissors instead of an exacto knife or scalpel. The only hard part is that pea flowers are self fertile and self¬†pollinating¬†by nature, and you must catch the flowers very early to be able to cut off the immature pollen so you can use pollen from another plant. I really don’t know how Mendel did that in his day in age, but i applaud the man. Here are two links to pea breeding on Rebsie Fairholm’s blog.

How to breed your own garden peas
How to hybridise garden peas 

The Results of Mendel's F1 crosses for Seven Characters in Pea Plants
Mendel worked with several different pea traits, and documented at least seven of those. Yellow-podded vs Green-podded, Yellow-seeded vs Green-seeded, Inflated Pods vs Constricted pods, Round seeds vs Wrinkled seeds, Tall vs Dwarf, flower position, and flower color.
my_seven_pea_traits_v3
Several Pea Traits I’m Currently Researching (I’m actually researching more than seven)
Here is a neat illustrated table of the various pea traits that I’m currently researching. It shows a more accurate color of the purple pea flowers which is known as Bicolour Purple. It also shows Salmon-Flowered, Terminal flowers (fasciated umbellatum-type peas), red-seeded peas, purple-seeded peas, purple podded peas, red-podded peas, Tendril-less peas, and Hyper-Tendril peas. In reality i am studying more than seven traits, but i put the table together as sort of an ode to Mendel.
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Purple-podded snow pea 'Midnight Snow'
‘Midnight Snow’ snow pea (purple-podded mangetout / edible-podded pea)
Some of the most interesting pea traits are the ones that i don’t think Mendel even knew existed. Purple-podded seems to be one of the ones Mendel never seems to have written about. But it is widely reported that the purple-podded varieties of peas originated from the Capuchin monks in the Netherlands.
The Unusual Parsley Pea
The Unusual Parsley Pea
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Hyper-Tendril peas! (aka. semi-leafless peas)
Hyper-Tendril peas! (aka. semi-leafless peas)

Alan Kapuler of Oregon discovered a while back that if you outcross a pea called “Parsley Pea” which has an insane amount of leaflets on it’s tendrils, that you can get a pea that has hyper-tendrils and has twice the amount of tendrils and doesn’t require a trellis to support themselves.

Rebsie Fairholm's famous red-podded pea
Rebsie Fairholm’s famous red-podded pea

Rebsie Fairholm from the U.K. discovered just a few years ago (2008) that when you cross a purple-podded pea with a yellow-podded pea you get a red-podded pea! How awesome is that!

Pea, Biskopens
Biskopens (rare red-seeded pea). Photo by Soren.

 

I’m currently trying collect lots of pea varieties with rare and interesting traits, but one that is uniquely rare though is one called Biskopens. It is the only pea that i know of that has red seeds! Yeah, it’s a red-seeded pea!

Pea, Purple Passion
Purple Passion (rare purple-seeded pea). Photo by Soren.

This is a very rare variety i was lucky (and surprised) to get in a recent trade. I really look forward to growing out this variety next spring. Supposedly it also has purple pods. I have no idea what it’s origin is. I’m curious if it’s the same gene as the red Biskopens pea, but perhaps with a green seed underneath so maybe this one comes out purple? I’m just speculating at this point.

Salmon-flowered pea
Salmon-flowered pea

If you are still interested in all of this, then please feel free to visit my pea_breeding webpage to find out more¬†detailed information about pea genetics and about Mendel’s work with peas (as well as¬† and Rebsie’s red-podded pea). Or my recently updated webpage about the seven-ish unusual pea traits that i’m currently studying at http://biolumo.com/garden/peas.html.